Refereed Articles
Fabrication and Optical Measurements of Germanium-Doped Silica Ridge Waveguides Using a Colloidal Suspension Approach
  Germanium-doped silica ridge waveguides for planar lightwave circuits were fabricated using colloidal suspensions. After consolidation at 1300 °C, fully dense micron-scale thick films were obtained. The refractive index of these films was tuned with germanium dopant up to 11.1 mol %. The propagation loss of a 3.1 mol % germanium-doped silica sample without an overcladding layer was 3.3±0.5  dB/cm. Postannealing of the patterned waveguides at 1200 °C for 30 min was conducted in order to reflow waveguides, but it did not significantly smooth the sidewall roughness due to the high viscosity of the 3.1 mol % germanium-doped silica at that temperature.  
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  Fabrication and Optical Measurements of Germanium-Doped Silica Ridge Waveguides Using a Colloidal Suspension Approach, D. Kim, H. Du, G. Kowach, C. White, D. McGee, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2005, 87, 121114/1.